THE LEATHER RESEARCH REFERENCE SHELF ¶ Leather Culture, 1945-1985 ¶ A Bibliography of Printed and Online Resources


See the home page of this site for pages devoted to the United States and to American regions and cities. Information on terminology and abbreviations is available.

Some of the links on this page lead to sexual information sites that are marked as being for adults only. Parental supervision is recommended for minors visiting this page.


Sections below:


* General European

* Denmark

* France

* Germany

* Spain – see General European

* United Kingdom


General European


"A Brief History of the Sixty Nine Club and the E.C.M.C." Sixty Nine Club. Tells about the formation of the first European leather club in 1965, and of the European Confederation of Motor Clubs in 1974. [G]

* Bienvenu, Robert V., II. "The Development of Sadomasochism as a Cultural Style in the Twentieth-Century United States." Dissertation, Indiana University, 1998. American Fetish. Includes a chapter entitled "The Genesis of the European Fetish Style," which covers heterosexuality. [G and H, with some L]

* Espacio Leather. A Spanish site with a number of articles on leather history, including information on historical events in Europe. In Spanish. The page devoted to SM/leather literature is available in English. [G, H, L]

* Lei and Mark. Cuirmale Gay Leather Fetish History. A history of gay leather in the U.S. and Europe, especially in England and the Netherlands. Covers the topics of bars, clubs, magazines, and clothing. Includes visitors' personal recollections of leather life from the 1940s to the early 1970s. [G]



Menardier, Lars. "Visit to a Leather Club," MANège #3 (November 1965). Posted at Cuirmale Gay Leather Fetish History with an English translation by Quirt. An article from a Danish magazine describing a Copehagen leather club. Includes an interview with one of the members. [G]



Fouque, Jean-Pierre. "Historique du Club 'F.S.M.C.'" A history of the first leather motorcycle club in France, which the author says was the third in Europe. The article also traces the formation of the European Confederation of Motor Clubs. In French. [G]



Allbavarian Kink. The Memorial section has profiles on Tony DeBlase and Franz Usorg. The Museum section has images of posters, tee-shirts, and other memorabilia. In German. (Linked to an inner page because of the lack of a link on the home page, but visitors under eighteen not admitted.) [G]

Was ist die LFC? History of a collection of German clubs, within the context of the history of leather and fetishism in Germany. In German. [G?]

United Kingdom


Hare, Derek. "Before SM Bisexuals." Ungagged [newsletter of SM Bisexuals] 9. A history of the SM movement in England, with a special focus on bisexuality. (Skip down to article.) [Bisexual: G, H, L]

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