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Masculinity, Crime, and Everyday Life in Victorian and Edwardian Times: A Bibliography of Printed and Online Resources

The following bibliography covers various aspects of social life in Maryland, the rest of the United States, England, and other English-speaking countries during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, with a special emphasis on period writings and photography during the years 1880 to 1912. The bibliography focusses especially on crime during that era, and how it affected and was affected by male culture.

More information on recently printed books, including previews, may be available through Google Books and online booksellers.

The biliography lists the books, articles, Websites, and museums I consulted while researching Turn-of-the-Century Toughs, a cycle of alternate history series about disreputable men on the margins of society, and the men and women who care for them. Set in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the novels and stories take place in an alternative version of America that was settled by inhabitants of the Old World in ancient times. As a result, the New World retains certain classical and medieval customs. For other bibliographies in this series, please see the main index of the Turn-of-the-Century Toughs Bibliographies.

Updated March 2015.

Sections below:

General Social History


The 1901 Editions of the T. Eaton Co. Limited Catalogues (reprinted by Stoddart in 1970). Canadian.

1902 Edition of the Sears, Roebuck Catalogue (reprinted by Bounty Books in 1969). American.

Bloomingdale's Illustrated 1886 Catalog: Fashions, Dry Goods and Housewares (reprinted by Dover in 1988). American.

Sears, Roebuck and Co. Consumers Guide: Fall 1900 (reprinted by DBI Books in 1970). American.


Dale, Rodney, and Joan Gray. Edwardian Inventions: 1901-1905 (1979). English. Includes descriptions based on the original patents.

Opie, Robert. The Edwardian Scrapbook (2002). English. Period illustrations and objects.


Barnes and Mortlake History Society. Barnes and Mortlake As It Was (1977). English.

—. Vintage Barnes and Mortlake (1979). English.

Coysh, Victor, and Carel Toms. Guernsey Through the Lens (1978). English.

Greenall, R. L. Old Northamptonshire in Photographs (1976). English.

The Historical and Archaeological Section of the Richmond Society. Richmond, Surrey, As It Was (1976). English.

Long, Charles. Oxford: The City & County As It Used to Be (no date). English.

Time-Life. This Fabulous Century: 1900-1910 (1969). American.

Victorian & Edwardian Series by B. T. Batsford Ltd. English. The titles, by various authors and at various dates, all consist of the words Victorian and Edwardian [Place Name] from Old Photographs. The following volumes were consulted: Cambridgeshire, City of London, Hampshire, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, and Yorkshire.

Weightman, Gavin. London Past (1991). English. From the Pictures from the Past series by Collins & Brown.

Winter, Gordon. A Country Camera 1844-1914 (1966, 1971, 1973). English. Photographs of rural life.


British Pathe. World. Online newsreel footage from 1896 onwards.


Cecil, Robert. Life in Edwardian England (1969). English.

Husband, Julie, and Jim O'Loughlin. Daily Life in the Industrial United States, 1870-1900 (2004). American. Part of the Greenwood Press "Daily Life Through History" series.


Science Museum, London. English. Victorian and Edwardian objects are scattered throughout the museum. List of collections.

Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History, Washington, D.C. American. Victorian and Progressive Era objects are scattered throughout the museum. List of collections.

General Social History: Maryland


Alabama Maps: Historical Maps of Maryland. Two pages.

Enoch Pratt Free Library: Mapping Maryland's Counties. A number of historical maps.

Maryland Geological Survey: Shoreline Changes. Shows the shoreline changes between the mid-nineteenth-century and today. The site also contains modern topographical maps of Maryland.

MDGenWeb. Historical documents and historical maps.

Office of Coast Survey: Historical Nautical Charts. Can be searched by date and location. Compare to Office of Coast Survey: Modern Nautical Charts.

MyTopo: Historical Topographical Maps. Turn-of-the-century maps by the United States Geological Survey, including maps of Maryland.

Western Maryland Historical Library. Digitized period material about the western counties of the State of Maryland.

Boys' Books


Beard, Daniel Carter. The American Boys' Handy Book (1882, 1890). American.

—. The Jack of All Trades (1900, 1904). American.

—. The Field and Forest Handy Book (1906). American.

—. The American Boys' Handy Book of Camp-lore and Woodcraft (1920). American.

Cole, Norman Brown, and Clayton Holt Ernst. First Aid for Boys (1917). American.

Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Book of Woodcraft and Indian Lore (1912, 1921). American.

See also Masculinities.



Byrde, Penelope: A Visual History of Costume: Twentieth Century (1986). An annotated guide to period illustrations, including oil paintings, photographs, illustrations, and line drawings.

Farrell-Beck, Jane, and Jean Parsons. Twentieth Century Dress in the United States (2007). Focusses primarily on haute couture and its impact on everday fashion.

Tortora, Phyllis G., and Keith Eubank. Survey of Historic Costume: A History of Western Dress (third edition, 1998). Includes sixty pages on late Victorian and Edwardian clothing, primarily American and English. Draws upon fashion books, contemporary photographs, and catalogue illustrations to reconstruct the fashions of the periods, in a detailed manner.


Victoria & Albert Museum, London. English. The fashion collection includes Victorian and Edwardian clothes and accessories.

Education: Boarding Schools

A note for non-British readers: In British parlance, a public school is a private school for teenagers, traditionally a single-sex boarding school. Before public school, some students attend prepatory school, traditionally also a single-sex boarding school. In the United States, a prep school is the American equivalent of a public school.

PERIOD WRITINGS: Boys' Schools – Fiction and Autobiographical Novels

Benson, E. F. David Blaize (1916). English. A stolid, faithful pal and a quicksilver, exciting older boy serve as bookends in the life of a schoolboy. An unabashed romantic friendship story, this novel about a boy's time at prepatory school and public school also contains important references to "filth" (i.e. homosexual activity).

Coke, Desmond. The Worst House at Sherborough (1915). English. A popular boy is forced to take on the unpopular task of reforming a badly run public school House.

Isherwood, Christopher. Lions and Shadows: An Education in the Twenties (1947). English setting, though published in an American edition. Although this autobiographical novel was published two decades after the events, Isherwood claims within the novel itself that the early part of the novel was completed in 1923. The first chapter is about his public school days in the late 1910s to the early 1920s; then the action moves to Cambridge University.

Kipling, Rudyard. Stalky & Co. (1899), with additional stories added in The Complete Stalky & Co. English. An early example of a school story that failed to depict the "good" schoolboys as shining with honor. The author provides an interesting twist in the final chapters by suggesting that the boys' refusal to be model schoolboys makes them eminently qualified to become skilled soldiers.

Raymond, Ernest. Tell England (1922). English. Two students from a public school who are in a romantic friendship are eventually sent as soldiers to the Gallipoli expedition of World War Two. According to a source on the Web, the author was a school chaplain who ended up as a soldier at Gallipoli; one of the novel's major characters is an Anglo-Catholic army chaplain.

Vachell, Horace Annesley. The Hill: A Romance of Friendship (1905). English. The subtitle tells it all: this is the story of a romantic friendship between schoolboys, and of the evil forces that threaten it. The book is often mentioned by later writers of school fiction.

PERIOD WRITINGS: Boys' Schools – Nonfiction

Darwin, Bernard. The English Public School (1929).

Hopewell, York. "Fags and Fagging," in The School Journal, 73 (September 22, 1906), 219-20. American, concerning English schools. Available through Google Books (in the 1906 volume; page 240 in the PDF file). Describes the fagging systems at various English public schools.

PERIOD WRITINGS AND HISTORICAL STUDIES: Boys' Schools – A Loom of Youth and Its Controversy

Titles in this section are listed by date of publication.

Wildman, W. B. A Short History of Sherborne from 705 A.D. (1902). English. Written by an assistant master at Sherborne School, Dorset, this book includes a chapter describing the school buildings one decade before Alec Waugh's arrival. Unfortunately, the online scan is missing all of the book's maps, including a plan of the school in 1896.

Lunn, Arnold. The Harrovians (1913). English. Supposedly based on a diary that the author kept at Harrow when he was a student there in the first decade of the 1900s, Lunn's novel may have inspired Alec Waugh to write The Loom of Youth a couple of years later. (One section of The Loom of Youth describes the protagonist's reaction to the publication of Lunn's novel.) Like The Loom of Youth, The Harrovians was intended to expose the reality of how schoolboys and their masters actually acted, in opposition to the image of them that had appeared in fiction until that time. Chapter VIII includes a conversation by schoolboys about sex that is startlingly frank in comparison to the coy sexual references in earlier novels by other authors. The final chapter contains informative conversations about how Harrow had changed since the protagonist's time.

Waugh, Alec. The Loom of Youth (1917). English. Written when the author was seventeen years old, this autobiographical novel tells of Alec Waugh's time at "Fernhurst" (Sherborne School). The novel created a scandal because of its negative portrayal of public school life and its references to homosexuality. Alec Waugh himself had been asked to leave Sherborne as a result of a homosexual affair with a fellow student. The online edition includes Waugh's 1954 introduction to the novel. The 1917 edition includes a preface by Thomas Seccombe, who was acquainted with Waugh.

Browne, Martin. A Dream of Youth: An Etonian's Reply to "A Loom of Youth" (1919). English. An awkwardly written protest by an Etonian schoolboy against Waugh's portrayal of public schools. The middle section of the book deals with morality, i.e. homosexuality.

Hood, Jack. The Heart of a Schoolboy (1919). English. Another awkwardly written treatise on the same subject, this one by a seventeen-year-old schoolboy. The sixth chapter addresses "impurity," i.e. homosexuality.

Waugh, Alec. Public School Life: Boys, Parents, Masters (1922). English. In a response to his critics, Waugh defends his portrayal of public school life in The Loom of Youth and suggests that lowering the age of school leaving would help to reform public schools. Homosexuality is discussed in the chapters entitled "Morality and the Romantic Friendship" and "The Leaving Age with Regard to Morals."

Waugh, Alec. Roland Whately (1922). English. Waugh clearly draws upon his own Sherborne experiences in the initial chapters of this novel, which are about a schoolboy who is forced by his headmaster to leave school because of sexual immorality, i.e. kissing a girl. Once more, the setting is "Fernhurst School."

Waugh, Alec. The Early Years of Alec Waugh (1962). English. Two of the chapters describe the author's time at Sherborne and tell how he left the school, though he is rather coy in describing the exact nature of his offense.

Waugh, Evelyn. "Charles Ryder's Schooldays." Charles Ryder's Schooldays and Other Stories (1982). As a result of Alec Waugh's disgrace, Sherborne did not permit Alec's younger brother, Evelyn, to attend the school. Instead, he attended another public school: Lancing College in Sussex. His unfinished public-school story featuring the protagonist of his novel Brideshead Revisited is set at a fictional version of Lancing.

Wykes, David. Evelyn Waugh: A Literary Life (1999). The first chapter suggests ways in which Alec Waugh's experience at Sherborne may have influenced the literary career of Evelyn Waugh.


Honey, J. R. de S. Tom Brown's Universe: The Development of the English Public School in the Nineteenth Century (1977). Includes a section on homosexuality.

Musgrave, P. W. From Brown to Bunter: The Life and Death of the School Story (1985). Includes a section on Alec Waugh.

HISTORICAL STUDIES: Boys' and Girls' Schools

British School Story Index. English. An ambitious project to list all of the British school stories. If you can figure out how to access most of the linked pages at this site, you'll have better luck than I did.

Collecting Books and Magazines. World. Provides information on many school story authors. The page on Girls' School Story Authors seems to have been dropped from the current site but is available through the Internet Archive.

Eyre, Frank, "School Stories," British Children's Books in the Twentieth Century (1971), 82-88. English. Describes boys' and girls' school stories.

Fisher, Margery, "Fossils and Formulas," Intent Upon Reading: A Critical Appraisal of Modern Fiction for Children (1961), 170-196. English. Includes a description of boys' and girls' school stories.


Gosling, Ju. The Virtual World of Girls (1998). World. "An ebook about girl power, girls' school stories and the future of reading in an electronic age." The e-book is online.

Löfgren, Eva Margareta. The Girls' Boarding School Story. World. Includes bibliographies. Also available in Swedish.

Mitchell, Sally. The New Girl: Girls' Culture in England, 1880-1915 (1995). Includes a chapter on school fiction.

Vicinus, Martha. "Distance and Desire: English Boarding School Friendships, 1870-1920," in Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncey, Jr., Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past (1989), 212-229. American, writing about an English setting. Interpreting these friendships within the framework of lesbian history, the author says, "The question is not whether the sexologists were pernicious or beneficial to women's romantic friendships and raves but, rather, when and why these two discourses came first to impinge on each other and then one discourse to replace the other."

See also Prisons (for reform schools and juvenile prison education) and Sports: Rugby Football.

General Sexuality


Drinking Songs. Collected by John Patrick. "This website is dedicated to traditional drinking songs . . . toasts, recitations and other bar room folklore." The Songbooks section includes a number of indecent writings from the Victorian and Edwardian Eras, including the classic Victorian magazine The Pearl. The Recordings section has a few Victorian and Edwardian songs.


This section focusses on three overlapping topics: man/youth attraction, cross-class relationships, and prostitution.


Forster, E. M. Maurice (1913-14; published in 1971). English. About a middle-class man's love for a young gamekeeper.

Hyde, H. Montgomery (editor). The Trials of Oscar Wilde (1948). English. Transcripts of the trials. One of the working-class young men to whom Wilde gave gifts testified at his trials.

Mayne, Xavier (Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson). The Intersexes: A History of Simisexualism as a Problem (1908). Online excerpt at Google Books.

Saul, Jack. The Sins of the Cities of the Plain (1881). English. A novel on homosexual prostitution, written by a youthful prostitute who was later one of the defendants in the Cleveland Street case (see below in the Homosexuality section). Sold online for one dollar, though that edition appears to have raised the ages of the younger characters so that they are all age eighteen.

Wilde, Oscar (attributed). Teleny (1893). English. A homosexual novel that includes passages about male prostitutes. Sold online for one dollar.


Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940 (1994). American. Chapter Three covers the topics of prostitution (including youth prostitution), working-class homosexuality, "wolves and punks" (men and youths who were in sexual relationships together), and prison homosexuality.

D'Arch Smith, Timothy. Love in Earnest: Some Notes on the Lives and Writings of English '"Uranian" Poets from 1889 to 1930 (1970). English. Describes the work of a group of poets who wrote about their love for boys, who were often working-class.

Gardiner, James. "Rough Trade." A Class Apart: The Private Pictures of Montague Glover (1992). English. This chapter about a 1930s gay photographer in London includes references to Victorian man/youth attraction, cross-class relationships, and prostitution.

Hyde, H. Montgomery. The Cleveland Street Scandal (1976). English. An 1889 case involving aristocrats buying the sexual services of working-class youths. The scandal preceded Oscar Wilde's arrest on similar charges. See the next two entries also.

Kaczorowski, Craig. "Cleveland Street Scandal." glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture (2005). English.

Kaplan, Morris B. "Did 'My Lord Gomorrah' Smile? Homosexuality, Class and Prostitution in the Cleveland Street Affair." In Disorder in the Court: Trials and Sexual Conflict at the Turn of the Century, edited by Goerge Robb and Nancy Erber (1999). English.

Katz, Jonathan Ned. Love Stories: Sex Between Men Before Homosexuality (2001). American. References to class and to adolescents are scattered throughout the volume.

Maynard, Steven. "'Horrible Temptations': Sex, Men, and Working-Class Male Youth in Urban Ontario, 1890-1935." Canadian Historical Review 78 (June 1997): 191–235. HTML: Article. HTML: Notes. PDF: Article and notes. Canadian. Covers the topic of sex between men and working-class boys for a variety of reasons, including prostitution. Also discusses the effects of theater on working-class boys.

Merrick, Jeffrey, and Michael Sibalis, eds. Homosexuality in French History and Culture (2001). French. Includes Michael Sibalis's "The Palais-Royal and the Homosexual Subculture of Nineteenth-Century Paris" (117-130) and William A. Peniston's "Pederasts, Prostitutes, and Pickpockets in Paris of the 1870s" (169-188).

Nash, Stanley D., ed. Prostitution in Great Britain 1485-1901: An Annotated Bibliography (1974). English. Includes references to homosexual prostitution.

Norton, Rictor. Class-based Erotics (1999). English. Discusses cross-class homosexual relationships in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.

Weeks, Jeffrey. "Inverts, Perverts, and Mary-Annes: Male Prostitution and the Regulation of Homosexuality in England in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries." Journal of Homosexuality 6 (Fall/Winter 1980-1). Reprinted in Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncey, Jr., Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past (1989), 195-211. English.

See also Education (Boarding Schools), Erotica, and the references to "sodomy" in Prisons.

Masculinities (Male Culture)


Girouard, Mark. The Return to Camelot: Chivalry and the English Gentleman (1981). English. Describes the  revival of chivalry in English society and the arts from the end of the eighteenth century to World War One.

Heron, Craig. "The Boys and Their Booze: Masculinities and Public Drinking in Working-class Hamilton, 1890-1946" (PDF file). The Canadian Historical Review 86/3 (September 2005), 411-452. Canadian. The "boys" referred to are men.

Merritt, George H. "Chivalry and Morality," in Handbook for Scout Masters (Boy Scouts of America, 1913). American.

See also Boys' Books, Homosexuality, and Poverty and Crime.

Medicine (including Mental Illness)


Dana, Charles L. Text-book of Nervous Diseases and Psychiatry (6th revised and enlarged edition, 1904).

Johnson, Alice A., et al.: Household Companion: The Family Doctor (1909).

Osler, William. The Principles and Practice of Medicine (fourth edition, 1901). Available through Google Books.

Osler, William, and Thomas McCrae (editors). Modern Medicine: Its Theory and Practice. Volume III (1907). Available through the Internet Archive.


The Country Doctor Museum. (Not visited in person.)

Poverty and Crime

This section focusses on the effects of poverty and crime on males, especially youths.


Addams, Jane. The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909).

—. Twenty Years at Hull-House (1910). A social reformer's remiscences. Especially interesting are her discussions in chapters seven and fifteen of the problems of integrating "fallen" and delinquent young people into the rest of society.

Clark, Sue Ainsley, and Edith Wyatt. Making Both Ends Meet: The Income and Outlay of New York Working Girls (1911). American. "This book is composed of the economic records of self-supporting women living away from home in New York." Topics covered: saleswomen, shirt-waist makers, factory workers, cloak makers, laundry workers, and scientific management.

Crozier, William, et al. (editors). On the Lower East Side: Observations of Life in Lower Manhattan at the Turn of the Century. American. An anthology of documents from the period.

Devine, Alexander. "Scuttlers and Scuttling: Their Prevention and Cure" (1890). English. About youth gangs in Manchester. The online version is abridged, providing about half the text.

Hegan, Alice Caldwell. Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch (1901). American. A novel about slum life by a social worker.

Richardson, Dorothy (pseudonym). The Long Day: The Story of a New York Working Girl (1905). American. Supposedly the memoir of a young woman from the country who sought her fortune in New York City and fell into poverty. She is forced to contend with less-than-gallant gentlemen.

Russell, Charles E. B. Manchester Boys: Sketches of Manchester Lads at Work and Play (1905). English. Extracts. Covers the following topics: friendships, trades, street boys, scuttlers (gang members), sports, indoor games, boys at the music hall, and lads' clubs.


Riis, Jacob A. How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (1890). American. Several chapters deal with the topic of children. See also his illustrations for the book, which he is as much noted for as the text.


Lewis Wickes Hine Photos at the George Eastman House Still Photograph Archive. Thumbnailed photos and descriptions. Abbreviated descriptions linked to thumbnails. Thumbnails only. American. Lewis Hine documented working-class people, including young people.

National Child Labor Committee Collection. More photographs by Lewis Hine, which can be viewed online through the links on the Arrangement and Access page.


Davies, Andrew. "Youth Gangs, Masculinity and Violence in Late Victorian Manchester and Salford." Journal of Social History (Winter 1998). English.


Lower East Side Tenement Museum, New York City. American. See especially the virtual tour. (Not visited in person.)

See also Homosexuality.



Allen, Fred C. Hand Book of the New York State Reformatory at Elmira (1916). American. Published by a model prison that was opened in 1876. The author provides detailed information on the the daily routines of the prisoners (ages sixteen to thirty), as well as a fictional narrative of the "experiences of a New York city lad, sentenced to the Elmira institution." See also the Twenty-Second Year Book of the New York State Reformatory (1897), at the same site.

Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the House of Reformation and Instruction for Colored Children (1874). American. Available through the Internet Archive. Brief description of a newly-created reform school for black children in Cheltenham, Maryland (currently named the Cheltenham Youth Facility).

Armstrong, Hugh (editor). "Report on Gaols and Rules for Prisoners." BC Sessional Papers (1888). Canadian. An 1879 report. Reprints the rules for prisoners in the Victoria and New Westminster Prisons.

Bidwell, Arthur. Bidwell's Travels from Wall Street to London Prison: Fifteen Years in Solitude (1897). American, but describes English prisons. Available through Google Books. After a brief spell in Newgate Prison, a famous forger is sentenced to penal servitude for life. He is sent first to Pentonville Prison and then to Chatham Prison. The memoir of the forger (who was eventually pardoned) includes a helpful description in Chapter XXXVIIII of the hierarchy and duties of prison officials.

"Governor LaFayette Grover: Report of Pardons, 1872" and "Governor Theodore T. Geer: Pardons and Commutations for 1899-1900." American. Records kept by Oregon governors. The prisoner's youth is often mentioned as a reason for pardons in the second document, but not in the first.

Hawthorne, Julian. The Subterranean Brotherhood (1914). American. A somewhat querulous account by Nathaniel Hawthorne's son of his time in prison, focussing on prison officials' corruption and cover-ups.

No. 7. Twenty-five Years in Seventeen Prisons: The Life-Story of an Ex-Convict (1903). English. Available through Google Books. Mixes humorous anecdotes with a balance of criticism and praise of the prison officials who watched over the author.

Osborne, Thomas Mott. Within Prison Walls (1914). American. A moving account of a prison commissioner's voluntary incarceration in the state prison at Auburn, New York, in order to learn what life was like for the prisoners there. The book is scattered with written accounts by prisoners who witnessed his imprisonment, as well as letters that prisoners sent him after his release.

—. Society and Prisons (1916). American. A series of lectures on penology. Chapter Four mentions in passing the "unnatural immoral acts" that Osborne says are "inevitable" in prison. (Osborne himself was accused by his political enemies of sodomy with prisoners, but the charges against him were dismissed by the judge who heard the case.) Chapters Five and Six continue the story of what happened at Auburn Prison after Osborne's release from his voluntary imprisonment and briefly recount his reform of Sing Sing Prison in Ossining, New York, where he became warden.

—. "Self-Government in a State Prison," in The Prison and the Prisoner: A Symposium, edited by Julia K. Jaffray (1917). American. See also New York Times articles referring to Thomas Mott Osborne.

Reynolds, John N. The Twin Hells: A Thrilling Narrative of Life in the Kansas and Missouri Penitentiaries (1890). American. Memoir of a former prisoner at the Kansas Penitentiary. In a passage that begins, "As I have stated heretofore" (pages 85-87), Reynolds briefly discusses "self-abuse and sodomy" by the prisoners.

Sullivan, Larry E. (editor). Bandits & Bibles: Convict Literature in Nineteenth-Century America (2003). American. An anthology of prisoners' writings from that era. A book review and a second book review are available online.

United States Bureau of the Census. Prisoners and Juvenile Delinquents in Institutions 1904. American. Available through Google Books. Statistics, with some explanations of the meanings of the statistics.

Victorian London: Prisons & Penal Systems. English. Various documents. Includes first-hand accounts of life in Victorian prisons.

Wines, E. C. (editor). Transactions of the Third National Prison Reform Congress. American. Available through Google Books. Includes reports and statistics on state prisons, houses of correction, and reformatories and reform schools in the United States, as well as prisons in Europe, Russia, New Zealand, and Australia.


Armstrong, Hugh. "Convict Deaths in the British Columbia Penitentiary, 1875-1916." The Journal of the Victoria Genealogical Society 21/4 (December 1998). Canadian. Click on the "Convict List" link for the list of deaths. Tuberculosis/phthisis is the leading cause of death, but suicide is not absent.

Corpun: World Corporal Punishment Research. Includes information on judicial floggings.

History of Parole in Canada. Canadian. Touches upon Canadian prison reform history.

NY Correction History Society. American. A site that is chock full of historical information, especially on its Chronicles page, but is in desperate need of a site map. Includes period writings and photos.

A Scottish Prison Timeline. Scottish.


Anamosa State Penitentiary Museum, Iowa. American. Includes period writings and photography. See especially The Scovel Pamphlet, an 1898 booklet describing the prison. (Not visited in person.)

Eastern State Penitentiary, Philadelphia. American. See especially the Bibliography, Prison Museum Links, and the Virtual Reality Tour. (Not visited in person.)

Sports: Rugby Football


Fleming, Charles James Nicol, and Charles John Bruce Marriott. "Football: Rugby Union." Encyclopaedia Britannica (1911).


Rugby Football History. Includes period writings, photographs, and illustrations.

Technology and Domestic Science


Cosgrove, J[ohn] J[oseph]. Principles and Practice of Plumbing (1906). Available through Google Books.

Kidder, Frank E. The Architect's and Builder's Pocket-Book: A Handbook for Architects, Structural Engineers, Builders, and Draughtsmen (1908; 15th edition, revised). Available through Google Books.

Lawler, James J. Modern Plumbing, Steam and Hot Water Heating: A New Practical Work for the Plumber, the Heating Engineer, the Architect, and the Builder (1899). Available through Google Books.

Starbuck, R[obert] M[acy]. Modern Plumbing Illustrated (1909). Available through Google Books.

Starbuck, R[obert] M[acy]. Questions and Answers on the Practice and Theory of Sanitary Plumbing (1909; 10th edition). Vol. 1: Drainage and Venting. Available through Google Books.

Twelfth Annual Report of the State Food Commissioner of Illinois for Year, 1911 (1912). American. Includes detailed reports by food inspectors.

Tegetmeier, W. B. The Scholars' Handbook of Household Management and Cookery (1876). English. Includes such topics as fuel and lighting.

Wiley, Harvey W. Foods and Their Adulteration (1917). American. Includes a chapter telling housewives how they may detect adulterated food, using simple home tests.


Early Office Museum. World. History of office supplies.

Theater and Cinema


Bryant, Billy. Children of Ol' Man River: The Life and Times of a Showboat Trouper (1936; reprinted by Lakeside Press in 1988). American. Memoir of a member of a family that acted on showboats. The prologue by Martin Ridge to the Lakeside Press edition includes a history of showboat acting.

Hart, William S. My Life East and West (1929; reprinted 1994 by Lakeside Press). American. Memoir of a theatrical actor from the West who became a star in silent film Westerns. Excerpt and information on the author.

Jerome, Jerome K. (attributed). Playwriting: A Handbook for Would-Be Dramatic Authors (1888). English.


Clee, Paul. Before Hollywood: From Shadow Play to the Silver Screen (2005).


Theatre Museum, London. English. See especially the objects in the Collections.

See also the references to theater and music halls in HomosexualityandPoverty and Crime.

Tramps and Hoboes


Davies, W. H. The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp (1908). English, including passages that are in an American setting. HTML edition of The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp.

Flynt, Josiah. My Life (1908). American. Autobiography of the most famous tramp writer of the 1890s.

Flynt, Josiah. Tramping with Tramps: Studies and Sketches of Vagabond Life (1899). American.

London, Jack. The Road (1907). American.

London, Jack. Jack London on the Road: The Tramp Diary and Other Hobo Writings (1979). American.

McCook, John J. "Leaves from the Diary of a Tramp," parts 1-9, Independent 53 (November 21, 1901): 2670-76; (December 5, 1901): 2880-88; (December 19, 1901): 3009-13; Independent 54 (January 2, 1902): 23-28; (January 16, 1902): 154-60; (February 6, 1902): 332-37; (March 13, 1902): 620-24; (April 10, 1902): 873-74; (June 26, 1902): 1539-44. American. Includes passages from correspondence by tramp William Aspinwall with McCook. I am indebted to Todd Depastino's Citizen Hobo for the citation.

Wyckoff, Walter A. A Day with a Tramp: And Other Days (1901). American.


Bruns, Roger A. Knights of the Road: A Hobo History (1980). American.

Depastino, Todd. Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America (2003). American.

Grahamqckr. A-No. 1 At Rest At Last (2001). American. Tribute site to a famous turn-of-the-century hobo. Includes an extensive historical bibliography of hobo life.

In Search of the American Hobo. American. A historical summary with period photographs.

Krause, Albert and Phyllis. On the Trail of Walter A. Wyckoff. American. Wyckoff's relatives trace his journey through modern and historical photographs and maps.

Transport: General


Master Car Builders' Association. The Car-Builders' Dictionary (1888). American. Glossary and diagrams on trains.

The Official Guide of the Railways and Steam Navigation Lines of the United States, Porto Rico, Canada, Mexico, and Cuba (July 1902). American.


American Sign Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio. American. Includes reproductions of vintage signs. (Not visited in person.)

Coventry Transport Museum. English. Especially strong in bicycles and motorcycles.

London's Transport Museum. English. See especially the online Photographic Collection.


B-More Ghosts. Maryland. Historical transport, street signs, etc., in Baltimore.

The Cumberland Road Project. Maryland. Steve Colby's mile-by-mile guide to the National Turnpike, built in the 1800s from Baltimore to Illinois. Includes period writings and illustrations.

Transport: Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (C&O)


Hahn, Thomas F. Chesapeake and Ohio Canal: Old Picture Album (3rd printing, 1979). Maryland.

Rubin, Mary H. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (2003). Arcadia's Images of America series. Maryland.


Hahn, Thomas F. The C&O Canal Boatmen: 1892-1924 (1980). Maryland.

Kytle, Elizabeth. Home on the Canal (1983). Maryland.


Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Williamsport, Maryland.

Transport: Western Maryland Railway (WM)


Western Maryland Railroad Company. Annual Report (1884-1894). Maryland. Annual reports on the Western Maryland Railway, with accompanying legal papers. Includes information on Potomac Valley Railroad, running from Williamsport, Maryland, to Cherry Run, West Virginia.


Rubin, Mary H. Hagerstown: Railroading Around the Hub City (2003). Arcadia's Images of Rail series. Maryland.


Alphabet Route: Western Maryland Railway. Maryland. Includes period documents and a bibliography.

Cook, Roger, and Karl Zimmerman. The Western Maryland Railway: Fireballs and Black Diamonds (1981). Maryland.

Cooper, Jeremy. Western Maryland Railway West Sub. Maryland. A detailed description of all the stations. Includes period photography.

Levitas, Susan (editor). Railroad Ties: Industry and Culture in Hagerstown, Maryland (1994). Maryland.

Salamon, Stephen J., and William E. Hopkins. The Western Maryland Railway in the Diesel Era (1991). Maryland.

Williams, Harold A. The Western Maryland Railway Story: A Chronicle of the First Century. 1852-1952 (1952). Maryland.


Hagerstown Roundhouse Museum, Maryland.

Fort Frederick State Park, Maryland. A prominent historic site near the railroad, in the vicinity of Big Pool.

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